The Pūre orchard is one of the biggest and oldest apple orchards in the Baltic. We have digitized the full flowering phenological data of apple trees over the period of 1959 to 2019. Described changes in full-flowering time: apple trees all 17 varieties have begun to flower earlier. We tested three sets of meteorological data in phenological model to develop better-quality phenological predictions. As ongoing and predicted climate change has had and will have a significant impact on agriculture
Based on the LES model data, a very strong correlation was found not only between the condensation, but also evaporation rate and upward mass flux. While good correlation between the upward mass flux and condensation is not surprising, the very high correlation coefficient (R = 0.99), as well as the role of the upward mass flux in determining the evaporation rate, is remarkable and may be important for future latent heat parameterization development.
In this work, machine learning techniques, satellite data and land-cover data were used to produce a land-cover map for Ireland that shows greater accuracy and resolution than an altered version of the standard land-cover map (ECOCLIMAP-SG) used for numerical weather prediction. This method offers a way to universally improve meteorological land-cover maps across jurisdictions, while also offering a method of updating the map regularly to account for seasonal changes in surface land-covers.
We have developed a tool to visualize rainfall observations, based on a combination of meteorological stations and weather radars, over Sweden in near real-time. By accumulating the rainfall in time (1–12 h) and space (hydrological basins), the tool is designed mainly for hydrological applications, e.g. to support flood forecasters and to facilitate post-event analyses. Despite evident uncertainties, different users have confirmed an added value of the tool in case studies.
Persistent warm urban temperature anomalies – urban heat islands – significantly enhance already amplified climate warming in the Arctic. This study presents the surface urban heat islands in all circum-Arctic settlements with more than 3000 inhabitants. It reveals strong and persistent urban temperature anomalies during both summer and winter seasons that vary in different cities from 0.5 °C to more than 6.0 °C.
Fall velocities of rain drops are reported for 2–3 mm drop diameters for several different turbulent intensities. The fall velocities are measured by 2D video disdrometers and the turbulence intensities by 100 Hz sonic anemometer. The findings are, (i) the mean fall speed decreases with increasing turbulent intensity, and (ii) the standard deviation increases with increase in the rms of the air velocity fluctuations.
The Norwegian Meteorological Institute initiated the project TV meteorologists as climate communicators in 2019. Our goal was to make it easier for people to understand climate change and how it relates to local weather. The TV meteorologists have received extended training in climate issues, and in the last two years they have had 40 TV-appearances focusing on different local climate issues on the NRK Evening news. The majority of the stories have also been shared through social media.
Agricultural production is largely determined by weather conditions during the crop growing season. Weather events such as frosts, droughts or heat stress during crop growth and development helps explain yield variability of common arable crops. We developed a methodology and visualisation tool for risk assessment, and tested the workflow for drought and frost risk. The methodology can be extended to other extreme weather events and their impacts on crop growth in different regions of the world.